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Thomas of Lancaster,rebel cousin of king Edward II/From warlord to Saint/Chapter Four

Thomas of Lancaster,rebel cousin of king Edward II/From warlord to Saint/Chapter Four

woensdag 17 februari 2021 22:29
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THOMAS OF LANCASTER, REBEL COUSIN OF KING EDWARD II/FROM
WARLORD TO SAINT/CHAPTER FOUR
SEE ALSO
Dear Readers
Travel with me to 14th century England again……
Recently I sent you chapter one, two and three of my ”book” article ”Thomas of Lancaster, rebel cousin of king Edward II, from warlord to Saint”
It inarrates the turbulent life
of Earl Thomas of Lancaster, cousin of king Edward II
Because it is extended, I do you the favour of sending my major article to you in chapters
You still remember chapters one, two and three?
AND NOW……CHAPTER FOUR!
ENJOY AND WATCH CLOSELY, HOW THE DRAMA UNFOLDS……..

CHAPTER FOUR
THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND KING EDWARD II
OUTBURST OF THE CONFLICT/PIERS GAVESTON,
THE ROYAL FAVOURITE

[This is a rather elaborated story about Piers Gaveston,
since he played a large part in the enmity between Thomas
and his cousin Edward II]

It was the tragedy of Piers Gaveston, who set a deep and nearly
invincible enmity between King Edward and his cousin Thomas……

The first indication of tension between Edward II and his
cousin Thomas was his abrupt leave of the Court in 1308, the fact
that he, obviously, witnessed no charters after that day, until
march 1310 AND that the constant flow of grants and favours to him from Edward also ceased. [82]
I don’t know, what the cause of the conflict was.
In each case, it didn’t seem to be referred to Gaveston, since
Lancaster, at first, was on friendly terms with him and remained
loyal, when the barons were pressing for Gaveston’s exile
in the spring of 1308 [83], he later completely turned against
Piers Gaveston.

Before going to that, something about Piers Gaveston
[about whom I will write an article in the future, just wait and
see]
He was a fascinating man.
Intelligent, witty, charming, with martial skills and later proved
to be a skilled military administrator.

Alas……
Too arrogant and provocative, which eventually led to his downfall.

PIERS GAVESTON

Piers Gaveston was an English nobleman from Gascon descent.
His father was a Gascon knight, Arnaud de Gabaston, his mother was
a noble woman,
Claramonde de Marsan [84]. Some sources suggest, that she is burned as
a witch [85], but there is no proof for that.
His father was in the service of King Edward I [Edward II’s father] and Piers
[Gaveston]
seems to have served King Edward likewise. [86]
Anyway, King Edward I was apparently impressed by Gaveston’s conduct and martial skills, and wanted him to serve as a model for his son [the
later Edward II], so he became a member of his household. [87]

FIRST EXILE

To cut a long story short:
Prince Edward and Piers Gaveston grew very fond of each other, probably too fond in the
eyes of the King…..and  fearing the apparent influence
of Piers on the [then] Prince of Wales [88], Edward [II], Piers
Gaveston was banished. [89]
That was the first time.
There were still two times to go…..

RETURN TO ENGLAND

Old King Edward I died on 7 july, 1307 and his son, Edward of
Caernarfon [named after his Welsh birthplace] [90], was now King of England.
One of his first acts was, surprise, surprise…..to recall his favourite
Piers Gaveston from exile.[91]

TROUBLES WITH THE BARONS/FAVOURS FROM THE
KING AND PROVOCATIONS

Very soon this led to great displeasure, to say it mildly under
the greatest part of the nobility, since Edward made him
”Earl of Cornwall” and this title was reserved for the members of
the royal family. [92]
So the great barons felt insulted, not only because of this title,
as for the fact, that compared with them, Piers Gaveston was of relatively
humble origins. ‘[93]

And then that coronation business!

As I wrote, Thomas of Lancaster carried the sword ”Curtana” at
the coronation of Edward II [and his wife Isabella of France], his
brother Henry carried  the royal rod, as were many other members
of high nobility involved in the ceremony. [94]

BUT PIERS GAVESTON STOLE THE SHOW!
While the Earls wore cloth-of-gold, as they were entitled to do in the king’s presence (cloth-of-gold is material shot through with gold thread), Gaveston wore royal purple, of silk, encrusted with jewels. [95]
They were beaten by Piers Gaveston at the tournament at
Wallingford in december 1307, what seemed to have aroused fury. [96]
They were also insulted, that the King married Piers
Gaveston off to his niece Margaret de Clare [97], daughter
of Kings sister Joan of Acre [married Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester] [98] and sister of the powerful [8th] Earl of Gloucester.
[99]

And then those nicknames!

Perhaps out of self-defence, or merely
for the pleasure of provocation, Piers gave the Earls
and barons all sort of insulting nicknames:

Henry de Lacy, [3rd] Earl of Lincoln, the father in
law of Thomas of Lancaster, was called ”burst belly” [boule
crevee], Thomas of Lancaster himself was called ”the churl”
or ”the fiddler”, the [2nd] Earl of Pembroke [100]
[a man of honour, which will show later] ”Joseph
the Jew” and  the [10th] Earl of Warwick [101], one of Piers”
most bitter enemies, was called ”the Black Dog of Arden.” [102]
Whether Piers really called his brother in law, the [7th] Earl of Gloucester ”whoreson”, is doubtful, since the lady in question,
Gloucester’s mother [as the mother of Piers” wife]
was the sister of the King….[103]

Yet, although annoying [apart of course from
that ”whoreson” what really was serious]
, one should think, that some
teasing, defeat at a tournament and arrogance would
not trigger such a hatred, as especially Thomas of
Lancaster and Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick
have had for the vain, witty and charming
Piers, who did them, further [unlike the later
favourite, Hugh Despenser the Younger, who was
real powerseeking and dangerous [104] no harm.

But those were high Earls, most of them royal or
else married with royalty and no men to forget insults,
especially from a man, who was, in their eyes, of
”humble origin” [105] and considered to be an adventurer.

And the King did nothing to stop Piers” arrogance.
On the contrary:
He seemed the witty remarks of Piers ”funny”

Seen the King’s great love and emotional dependence
of Piers Gaveston [as shows not only the  numerous
gifts and honours he bestowed at him, as his reaction
on his banishments], some writers assumed they were lovers
and others, not [106]

I can’t look into the Medieval royal bedchamber, of course, but
given Edward’s great emotional need for Piers, that he swore
vengeance after his death [107] as the fact that
he never forgot him [108], it seems likely to me.

ENOUGH IS ENOUGH/YOUR GRACE, BANISH THAT
RASCAL!
SECOND EXILE

No part to play for Thomas of Lancaster
Not yet……..

Tensions rose between at one side the Earls and barons and
at the other side Piers Gaveston [and subsequently, the King]

This led to the second [Piers was already banished firstly
by Edward I, recalled by Edward II] banishment of Piers Gaveston in 1308

I already mentioned the arrogant behaviour of Piers,
the insulting nicknames, the fact that the King married him
off to a member of the royal family [his niece Margaret
de Clare], Piers” showing off at the coronation
of the King [and Isabella, his wife] [109], his beating of
important members of the nobility at the tournament
of Wallingford, the fact, that the King had made him
regent during his absence [his marriage in France, with
Isabella, daughter of King Philip IV] [110]

Reasons enough for the high and mighty Lords to hate Piers.
What I DIDN’T mention [and do now], that the King
refused to see any of his barons unless Piers was also present, and rudely ignored them, talking only to Piers. [111]

The Medieval
chronicle Vita Edwardi Secundi [Latin: Life of Edward the Second]
wrote about Piers” growing arrogance:’
””scornfully rolling his upraised eyes in pride and in abuse, he looked down upon all with pompous and supercilious countenance…indeed the superciliousness which he affected would have been unbearable enough in a king’s son.”

ENOUGH IS ENOUGH, the Earls and barons must have said:
He has to go!

Under pressure of nearly every member of the nobility, the King was forced to banish Gaveston. [112]

Another powerful influence came from the French King, Philip IV
who, apparently offended by the Edward II’s favouritism
of Gaveston and the [intended or not] neglect, at least
at the coronation banquet [113] of his [Philip IV’s] daughter Isabella, and Edward’s wife, supported the barons. [114]

According some sources he said to have sent 40,000 livres to the earls of Lincoln [Thomas of Lancaster’s father
in law] and Pembroke to encourage them to proceed against Gaveston. [115]

Strangely although, at that time Thomas of Lancaster was
still supportive to the King, along with a small minority,
and was not behind the banishment. [116]
However, that would change, dramatically

Well, on 18 may [1308] Edward consented to exile
Piers, which he did grudgedly, but with no choice:
Civil war was treathening [figure, ONE YEAR a King
and already the nobility willing to rise against you…..]
and although he was stripped from his lands [being
Earl of Cornwall], but was allowed to hold the title.
And he was not without an income!
Edward granted Piers £2000 worth of lands in his homeland of Gascony, and another £2000 of English lands for
him and his wife Margaret [who accompanied him
in exiler, although she was not banished, being
the granddaughter of King Edward I and the sister
of the Earl of Gloucester.
Edward also gave him a gift of 1180 marks, about 786 pounds, an enormous sum ![117]

And he was not actually BANISHED from the realm, since
he was appointed Lieutenant General in Ireland, where he
showed [granted] a skilled military administrator and even
beat down a rebellion. [118]

Meanwhile Edward did his utmost to bring Piers back.
Through distribution of patronage and concessions to political demands, he won over several of the earls who had previously been of a hostile disposition. [119]
Henry de Lacy [Earl of Lincoln, Thomas
of Lancaster’s father in law], who was the leader of the baronial opposition due to his age and great wealth, was reconciled with Edward by late summer 1308. Even Warwick, who had been the most unyielding enemies, of Gaveston, was gradually mollified
The excommunication with which Piers was threatened by the
Archbishop of Canterbury should he come
back, was nullified by Pope Clement V. [120].
That was in april 1309.

So the way was free for Piers to return.
Of course it had come with a price:
At the parliament that met at Stamford in July, Edward had to agree to a series of political concessions, The so-called Statute of Stamford was based on a similar document Edward I had consented to in 1300, called the articuli super carta, which was in turn based on Magna Carta.

The ”Statute of Stamford” implied a promiose to redress baronial grievances. [121]

However:
At 27 june 1309, Piers had returned to England.
On 5 August 1309, Gaveston was reinstated with the earldom of Cornwall.

RETURN/AS ARROGANT AS EVER!

BUT SOME PEOPLE NEVER LEARN.

You would expect some modesty, some cautiousness.

But no, Piers Gaveston was as arrogant as ever, perhaps
even worse and the King did nothing to stop him.
He played the old game again, provocating the nobility
and giving them insulting nicknames. [122]

Of course the Earls and barons were furious!
They had enough of it.

The political climate became so hateful that in February 1310, a number of the earls refused to attend parliament as long as Gaveston was present. Gaveston was dismissed, and, when parliament convened, the disaffected barons presented a list of grievances they wanted addressed. On 16 March, the King was forced to appoint a group of men to ordain reforms of the royal household.[This group of so-called Lords Ordainers cons isted of eight earls, seven bishops and six barons.[123]

Among them supporters of the King, like the Earl of Gloucester
[his nephew and brother in law of Piers Gaveston], but also die hard
opponents of Piers Gaveston [and subsequently the King], like
the [10th] Earl of Warwick and Thomas of Lancaster, who was now
neither a friend of the king, nor of Piers Gaveston.
The natural leader of the Ordainers was ”burst belly” [nickname
by Piers Gaveston….], Henry de Lacy, the [3rd] Earl of Lincoln
and father in law of Thomas of Lancaster.
Lincoln had a moderate influence, which, alas, would disappear…..

LORD ORDAINERS

The meaning of the Ordinances, as eventually presented in 1311 [124], was
twofold.
The great Lords wanted to get rid of Piers Gaveston, surely, but I
think, that even when there had been no Gaveston, such as the Ordinances
would have been presented [since Edward II was not the strong leader
his father was], aiming at limiting royal power.

To say it otherwise:
The eternal struggle between centralization and decentralization, as
I have described in part one.

So:

Hatred against Piers Gaveston, the ”Gascon adventurer” and his
influence over the King, combined with adesire for reforms, partly
based on the ideas of Simon de Montfort [125]
Partly [or mainly, as you see it] based on greater influence for
the nobility and a weaker kingship.

With the King doting over Gaveston no difficult task…..

Anyway, to cut a long story short:

When the Lord Ordainers were working on reforms [consisting
diminishing royal power], the King launched a military campaign against
the Scots, but many barons refused to follow him.
Except his nephew [and brother in law of Gaveston] Gloucester, Warenne [126] and of course, Piers Gaveston.
It came to nothing, however, when the Scottish King and leader
Robert the Bruce [127] refused to engage in open battle, or even get involved in negotiations.
In February, Gaveston was sent with an army north from
Roxburgh to Perth, but he failed to track down the Scottish army. [128]

EXIT ”BURST BELLY”/THE COMING OF THOMAS OF LANCASTER

In the meantime it went worse and going to a new tragedy for the
King and Gaveston:
”Burst Belly”, Thomas of Lancaster’s father in law died on 6 february 1311,
which meant the end of the moderate influence in the
baronial opposition against the King.

Thomas of Lancaster, as his heir [now in the possession of five Earldoms,
three from his father and two from his father in law]
became the new leader of the Lords Ordainers and  a hardliner!

With the Ordainers ready to present their programme of reform, Edward had to summon a parliament. In late July he appointed Gaveston Lieutenant of Scotland, and departed for London.
The Bruce still evaded the English successfully, in early August even staging a raid into northern England, and shortly after this Gaveston withdrew to Bamburgh Castle in Northumberland.

When parliament met on 16 August, the King was presented with a set of proposed reforms of the royal household, as well as specific attacks on individuals, including a demand for the renewed exile of Piers Gaveston.
Edward initially offered to agree to the reforms as long as Gaveston was allowed to stay, but the Ordainers refused.

The King eventually had to agree to the Ordinances, which were published on 27 September.
On 3 November, two days after the allotted deadline, Gaveston left England ………..[129]

A triumph for the barons
A deep, personal tragedy for the King.

DETORIATION OF THE RELATIONS
BETWEEN THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND THE KING/
CLASHES

Before continuing with the Piers Gaveston tragedy, some examples of
the detoriation of the relationship between the King and his cousin
Thomas of Lancaster:

In February 1311, Thomas’  father-in-law Henry de Lacy, earl of Lincoln, died, and Thomas inherited his lands by right of his wife Alice. He had to perform homage to Edward II for the lands, but Edward was then on campaign in Scotland. Thomas refused to cross the Tweed to meet the king; Edward refused to return to England. According to the Lanercost chronicle, Thomas threatened to forcibly enter his lands with a hundred knights, at which Edward gave in and met Thomas at Haggerston, on the English side of the river Tweed.
Whatever they felt for each other by then, the men at least managed to conceal any hostility and “saluted each other amicably and exchanged frequent kisses.” [130]

This in fact was a declaraion of war against his King and is
considered to be treason…..

But there is more:

”In June 1314, Thomas refused to accompany his cousin to Scotland for the Bannockburn campaign, and sent only four knights and four men-at-armsto fulfil his feudal obligations.” [131]

Of course the Gaveston tragedy….. [132]

And in 1316, when open war was imminent between those two
most powerful men in England, the following:

Although Thomas was chosen as one of the godfathers of Edward and Isabella of France’s second son John of Eltham [133], Thomas’s great-nephew, he failed to attend the boy’s christening, a gross insult to the king and queen. [134]

But honesty obliges me to say, that before the christening solemnity of the second son of the King, Thomas and the King seemed
to have had a serious row in York…..[135]

Back to Gaveston:

RETURN TO ENGLAND
PIERS GAVESTON GOES HOME……..

You noticed the hatred, the barons felt for Piers Gaveston
Their attempts to get rid of him.
Twice
And this time, his exile was really
meant forever……

And guess who’s coming to visit?

PIERS GAVESTON!
Came back again.

Despite the fact the barons hated him.
Despite the fact that he was to be excommunicated,
whenever he set his foot on English soil again.

If the man was not playing a crazy and reckless game, his return
must have had a pressing need:
I think perhaps he came back for the birth of his
child.
And for him it must have been a wonderful thing,
that at least he saw his child:
At 12 january, Piers’ wife Margaret gave birth to a
daughter, Joan.
Edward seems to have met Piers at Knaresborough on 13 January, [I don’t know when Piers set foot on English soil]
and the two men rushed the seventeen miles to York that same day, likely so Piers could see his wife and baby. [136]

Seen in the light of the tragic events, it’s good to know
that he at least saw his child, before the tragedy befell him……

What then happened was no clever politics
from the King:
He publicly revoked Gaveston”s exile. [137]
So the barons knew that he was back and were now
preparing for civil war, with Thomas of Lancaster
and The Earl of Warwick ahead!
In march Gaveston was excommunicated [138]
and soon he, the King and Queen Isabella were hunted
down by the barons.

Thomas of Lancaster came after them with an army
and Edward fled with his wife and Gaveston, pursued
by his own cousin Thomas! [139]

WHAT A DEGRADING SITUATION!
WHEN A KING MUST TAKE FLIGHT FOR
HIS OWN, ARMED SUBJECTS, HIS RULE
AND KINGSHIP IS BANKRUPT AND AT THAT
MOMENT HE IS, AS A KING, A TOTAL FAILURE!

Edward should have been warned by this, that if he was not
able to restore his authority in short time, this could be
the beginning of the end!

And it was………

How powerful Thomas of Lancaster must have felt.
As if HE were the King…….

It was a dramatic flight, with a dramatic end.
Edward’s desperate attempts to keep
Gaveston safe seem to have gone so far, that he offered
Robert the Bruce [King of the Scots and the great leader
of the rise against the English domination] to acknowledge
him as King in exchange for the protection of Gaveston. [140]
Which the Bruce refused, who seems to have exclaimed
””How shall the king of England keep faith with me, since he does not observe the sworn promises made to his liege men?…No trust can be put in such a fickle man; his promises will not deceive me.”
[141]

I ask my readers:
If the king wanted to go that far to save his favourite, Gaveston,
were they just friends or lovers?
I think, lovers……

SIEGE OF SCARBOROUGH

Meanwhile the barons, under the leadership of
Thomas of Lancaster, were determined ”to get him”
[Gaveston]

Thomas of Lancaster nearly captured the King and his favourite,
when they were in Newcastle and the [2nd] Earl of Pembroke [142]
and the [7th] Earl of Surrey, John de Warenne [143], were given the task to capture Gaveston. [144]

The King and Gaveston split up [probably the King wanted
to get reinforcements to protect Gaveston] [145], the king and
Queen went to York and Gaveston was in Scarbourough Castle.
That was the last time, King Edward would ever see Gaveston…..

Soon Gaveston was besieged by Pembroke, Warenne, Henry de Percy
[1st Baron Percy] [146] and Robert de Clifford [1st Baron de Clifford][147]

ONE MAN OF HONOUR…..

The rest of the story is gruesome, but one
man should get the credits he deserved.
Aymer de Valence, [2nd] Earl of Pembroke.
As written, Gaveston was besieged in Scarborough by
Pembroke, Warenne, with the help of Henry de Percy
and Robert de Clifford.

Gaveston could not held the castle, so he surrendered to the
besiegers.
The terms of the surrender were that Pembroke, Warenne and Percy would take Gaveston to York, where the barons would negotiate with the king. If an agreement could not be reached by 1 August, Gaveston would be allowed to return to Scarborough. The three swore an oath to guarantee his safety.After an initial meeting with the King in York, Gaveston was left in the custody of Pembroke, who escorted him south for safekeeping.

Pembroke [who was the cousin of the late King Edward I, his father
being the halfbrother of Edward I’s father, King Henry III] [148]
did his utmost to behold his word.
When leaving Gaveston in the rectory at Deddington in Oxfordshire
to visit his wife, Gaveston’s bitter enemy and great ally of Thomas of Lancaster, the 10th Earl of Warwick,
found out about Gaveston’s whereabouts, he immediately rode out to capture him. The next morning he appeared at the rectory, where he took Gaveston captive and brought him back to his castle at Warwick.

Pembroke, who was shocked, that he broke his word without
his guilt and found therefore his honour affronted, did his utmost
to bring Gaveston back:
He appealed for justice both to Gaveston’s brother-in-law Gloucester and to the University of Oxford, but to no avail. [149]

SO, THAT’S A MAN OF HONOUR, AN MAN TRUE TO HIS WORD!

He [Pembroke] was so shocked about what happened thereafter, that
he left the baronial opposition and sided from then with King Edward. [150]

AFTERMATH/PIERS GAVESTON GOES HOME…..
DIRTY ROLE TO PLAY FOR THOMAS OF LANCASTER AND
CO

What happened then was dishonourable and criminal:

After putting Gaveston in his dungeons, Warwick sent word
to Thomas of Lancaster, the [4th] Earl of Hereford [married with the
sister of King Edward….] [151] and the [9th] Earl of Arundel [152]

They came to Warwick Castle and in a show trial they condemned poor Gaveston to death [among
else ”for having violated the Ordinances…]
On 19 June, he was taken out on the road towards Kenilworth as far to
a place, Blacklow Hill, which was on the Earl of Lancaster’s land.

There he was beheaded by two Welshmen….. [153]

They at least ”granted” him the ”honour” of
beheading, the nobleman’s death, since he was
the brother in law of the [8th] Earl of Gloucester, the
King’s nephew. [154]

Poor Gaveston, who flew too high and was too vain and
had a too sharp tongue…..

His daughter was just five months old.
She never knew her father [155]

”MY BROTHER PIERS”/AFTERMATH

[My Brother Piers, that was the way King Edward II called
Piers Gaveston…] [156]

If Thomas of Lancaster and [the 10th Earl of] Warwick had thought,
that their unlawful killing of Piers Gaveston would end the  threat of civil war,
they were wrong.
It only made things worse.

Not only the King who [understandably] was beside himself of grief and
rage and swore revenge on Gaveston’s killers [157],
many former adherents of Lancaster and Warwick were
alienated from them, shocked by the  illegality and brutality of
the murder of a man, who was only too arrogant, witty and
avarious, but posed no political threat.[158]
That would be totally different in the case of a later favourite, Hugh Despenser
the Younger, who, with his father, also Hugh, 1st Earl of Winchester,
would pose a real political threat, was powerseeking, greedy and dangerous
in a way, Gaveston never was…….[159]
People would miss Gaveston en wish he were here, in place ofthe  Despensers
…………….

So the brutal killing of Gaveston had the effect of garnering
support for the king and marginalising the rebellious barons.

So, many  turned to the King again, also those
directly  involved with the fight against Gaveston, especially

the Earl of Pembroke, who reproached Warwick to have offended his
honour by abducting Gaveston, when in his [Pembroke’s] custody
[see above] [160]
But also Warenne, the [7th] Earl of Surrey [161], with Pembroke, one of
the bersiegers of Scarbourough Castle [where Gaveston was hiding]
was pushed back into the kings’ camp, unhappy
about Gaveston’s execution. [162]
By the way:
Later, Warenne would become a bitter enemy of Thomas of
Lancaster, who accused him to have played a role in the abduction
of his wife, Alice de Lacy, with whom he was married unhappily…. [163]

But there was more to it:

Since civil war was still on the move, Thomas of Lancaster and his gang
[let’s bring some humour in this sordid story], the Earls of Warwick and Hereford
[who was, remember, King’s brother in law] [164], brought their armies
in Hertfordshire [immediately North of London] [165] and the King,
moving from York [where he had heard the news of the death of Gaveston],
headed for London.

He arrived in Westminster and on 14 July and stayed there for the rest of the month, and made an impassioned public speech at the house of the Dominicans asking the Londoners to defend the city against Piers Gaveston’s killers.
London supported him and closed the gates of the city against the earls of Lancaster, Warwick and Hereford. [166]

KING’S PARDONS

What to do?
That was the question.
Piers Gaveston was brutally murdered, the King wanted
revenge, he went to London, but the murderers of Gaveston
also brought their armies to Hertfordshire [immediately North
of London], although the Londoners closed the gates for them.

Civil war was close to begin, in earnest.

Something had to be done:

There were mediators between the King and the Earls
[Thomas of Lancaster, Guy de Beauchamp, Earl of
Warwick and the Earl of Hereford, brother in law of
the King]
I mention here:

The [8th] Earl of Gloucester, nephew of the King
[who, by the way, had refused to help Gaveston when
imprisoned in Warwick Castle [167]
Lord Clifford [one of the besiegers of Scarbourough,
but further loyal to the King]
Louis, Count of Evreux [168], halfbrother of King Philip
IV [father in law of Edward II], sent by him to mediate.
The Pope [Pope Clement V] [169], sent two
envoys, Arnaud d’Aux, bishop of Poitiers, and Cardinal Arnaud Nouvel.
Another negotiator was Edward II’s first cousin John of Brittany, earl of Richmond, grandson of Henry III [170]

High profile mediators, thus.

Yet a military confrontation threatened throughout the summer and early autumn of 1312.

But, luckily, nothing came from that.

Meanwhile, Edward II must have been consolated in a way
for the grief about Gaveston, when on 13 november 1312,
his first son, the future King Edward III was born [171], which
of course delighted his father [Edward II] and his
mother, Queen Isabella. [172]

Anyway, a treaty was made and sealed in London on 20 December 1312, in the presence of Cardinal Arnaud Nouvel, Arnaud d’Aux, bishop of Poitiers, Louis, count of Evreux, and the earls of Gloucester and Richmond.
It was agreed that the three earls and various barons would make obeisance to Edward II in his great hall at Westminster, “with great humility, on their knees” (oue graunte humilite as genuz/cum magna humilitate flexis genibus) and “humbly beg him to release them from his resentment and rancour, and receive them into his good will.” [173]

The precious goods, belonging to Edward II and Piers Gaveston,
seized by Thomas of Lancaster [174], must be returned
to the King.

On 16 December, four days before the treaty, Edward had granted Lancaster a safe-conduct and permission to use an escort of forty men-at-arms to bring him his possessions.

No action would be taken against Piers’ followers, and the three earls and all their own followers would be pardoned for anything they had done to Piers.

On 16 October 1313 at Westminster, Edward II pardoned the three earls, and more than 350 of their adherents, “of all causes of rancour, anger, distress, actions, obligations, quarrels and accusations, arisen in any manner on account of Piers Gaveston, from the time of our marriage with our dear companion, our very dear lady, Lady Isabella queen of England.”
Over 350 men were pardoned.
[175]

Of course this was only a show, because the King wanted
to take his revenge, but was was not in
the opportunity, since the power of the Earls was too strong.

The drama would continue.

And another dramatic addition:

When Piers Gaveston was murdered and the body
[that was simply ”left behind” at the place of the execution
and later found by a group of Dominican friars
brought the body and embalmed the body],
Piers Gaveston could not be buried in consecrated ground,
since he was excommunicated.
So the King had to wait, until he had secured a papal
absolution for his favourite. [176]
Eventually  when the absolution was given, Piers
Gaveston was burned at Langley Priory [founded
by Edward II]
at 2 or 3 january 1315…… [177]

AFTERMATH

WHAT HAPPENED TO THE KILLERS/BESIEGERS OF GAVESTON?

Readers, although the story writes itself, I think you want
to know in advance, what happened to the killers of
Piers Gaveston.

An overview:

Guy de Beauchamp, the [10th] Earl of Warwick:

As been written, Guy de Beauchamp, that great ally
of Thomas of Lancaster and bitter enemy of Piers
Gaveston, had abducted him [Piers Gaveston] from
the custody of the Earl of Pembroke,
brought him to Warwick Castle, put him in one of his dungeons
and awaited Thomas of Lancaster and the Earls of Hereford
and Arundel.
Gaveston was given a mock trial and put to
death at Blacklow Hill.
Warwick didn’t attend the murder, in contary with the other
three Earls.

After Gaveston’s death, Warwick remained the enemy
of the King [received pardon nevertheless] and refused
to participate in the campaign of Edward II against
the Scots, which resulted in the defeat at Bannockburn. [178]
However, In mid-July Warwick had to withdraw from government to his estates, due to illness.[36]
He died on 12 August 1315. [179]
There were rumours that Edward II had him poisoned,
but there is no proof for that. [180]

In contrary with Thomas Lancaster, he was an intelligent and skilled politician and was undoubtedly greatly missed by him [:Lancaster]

HUMPHREY DE BOHUN, 4TH EARL OF HEREFORD

One of the killers of Piers Gaveston, who attended his
murder was King’s the [4th] Earl of Hereford.
He did fight in the battle of Bannockburn, was taken
prisoner and although he was out of grace after the
murder of Piers Gaveston, was ransomed by Edward
II, obviously on the pleading of his [Edward’s] wife,
Isabella. [181]
Éventually, he joined the second rebellion of Thomas
of Lancaster and was killed in the Battle of Bouroughbridge.
[182]

EDMUND FITZALAN, [9TH] EARL OF ARUNDEL

Together with Thomas of Lancaster and the  Earl of
Hereford, the Earl of Arundel watched the murder of
Piers Gaveston, after [with Warwick, Lancaster and Hereford]
condemning him to death in a mock trial.
However, he turned to the King again in 1313 [and married
his son Richard to the daughter of Hugh Despenser the Younger,
the Kings later favourite].
As result of his loyalty, he was executed in 1326, when
Isabella of France and her [supposed] lover Roger
Mortimer invaded England and deposed Edward II. [183]

AYMER DE VALENCE, 2ND EARL OF PEMBROKE

The Earl of Pembroke was one of the besiegers of Castle
Scarbourough, where Piers Gaveston was hiding.
And he was a man of honour, who gave Gaveston his
word for his safety and was honestly shocked, when
the Earl of Warwick abducted him.
He tried to save Gaveston by appealing for justice
at the University of Oxford and Gaveston’s brother in
law, the Earl of Gloucester, but to no avail. [184]
Being shocked at this violation of his honour,
he sided with the King again [185], tried to prevent
civil war by mediating between the King and Thomas
of Lancaster.
Eventually he came into trouble because the rise
of the Despensers, was sent to an embassy in France
and died there.  [186]

JOHN DE WARENNE, 7TH EARL OF SURREY

With the Earl of Pembroke and others one of the besiegers
of Castle Scarbourough.
However, unhappy with the extrajudicial execution of Piers Gaveston,
he sided with the King again.
Later he had a long lasting feud with Thomas of Lancaster over
his supposed role in the abduction of Lancaster’s wife.
Together with the Earl of Arundel, they were the last Earls, who
remained loyal to Edward II, when his wife Isabella of France
and her [possible] lover Roger Mortimer invaded England.
After the execution of Arundel, he went over to Isabella and
Mortimer.
Eventually he died peacefully in 1345, as one of the few Earls
during the reign of Edward II. [187]

HENRY DE PERCY, 1ST BARON PERCY

Together with Thomas of Lancaster he had pusued the King and Gaveston
on their way north.
Later he was one of the besiegers of Castle Scarbourough, but as Pembroke
and Warenne, not involved in the murder of Gaveston.
Yet out of revenge and being less powerful than the Earls, complicitín the
murder, the King confiscated his lands in 1312 and had him imprisoned.
However:
The earls made Percy’s release a priority in their dnegotiations with the king and he was freed in January 1313. and was formally pardoned,

with the others involved. [188]
He didn’t participate in the Battle of Bannockburn, along with five of the earls and many other nobles refused summonses to this campaign because it had not been sanctioned by parliament, as required by the Ordinances.
In the first half of October 1314 Henry Percy died, aged forty one, of unknown causes. [189]

ROBERT CLIFFORD, 1ST BARON DE CLIFFORD

As Henry Percy, baron de Clifford had pusued the King and
Gaveston on their way North, under the leadership of
Thomas of Lancaster.
He also was one of the besiegers of Castle Scarbourough.
And in contrary with Henry Percy, Thomas of Lancaster,
the Earl of Warwick and many other nobles he DID fight
in the Battle of Bannockburn and was killed. [190]

Who also was killed in the Battle of Bannockburn,
was Gilbert de Clare, the [8th] Earl of Gloucester,
the brother in law of Piers Gaveston, who neither pusued him or
besieged him, but refused to help him when was asked
by the Earl of Pembroke. [191]

AND LAST BUT NOT LEAST/THOMAS, 2ND  OF LANCASTER
What happened to Thomas of Lancaster, how his
illustrious life ended, is yet shrouded in mist……

The story will tell…….

READ FURTHER

ASTRID ESSED

NOTES 1-250

https://www.astridessed.nl/notes-1-250-at-article-about-thomas-earl-of-lancaster/

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