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Noten 1 t/m 133 bij/Brief aan historisch tijdschrift ”Ontdek” over verkeerde historische informatie over de Rozenoorlogen

Noten 1 t/m 133 bij/Brief aan historisch tijdschrift ”Ontdek” over verkeerde historische informatie over de Rozenoorlogen

dinsdag 7 september 2021 00:16
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[1]
Richard Neville, de 16de Graaf van Warwick, werd bekend als ”the Kingmaker”
omdat hij twee koningen in het zadel heeft geholpen, eerst zijn neef Edward,
de 7de Earl [Graaf] of March en zoon van Richard, hertog van York.
Edward werd na een aantal overwinningen op de Lancasters, in 1461,
tot koning gekroond, waarbij Warwick een beslissende rol speelde.
Nadat er een breuk was ontstaan met zijn neef, koning Edward IV, trachtte Warwick George Plantagenet, de broer van Edward IV, die inmiddels met
Warwick’s dochter getrouwd was [tegen de wil van Edward IV], op de troon te brengen.
Toen dat mislukte, liep Warwick over naar de kant van Lancaster, zette de in 1461 afgezette koning Hendrik VI weer op de troon en bracht een huwelijk
tot stand tussen zijn jongste dochter Anne Neville en de zoon van koning Hendrik VI en zijn strijdbare vrouw, Margaretha van Anjou, Edward van Westminster.
Tenslotte sneuvelde Warwick in de slag bij Barnet, de eindstrijd tegen zijn
neef, koning Edward IV [die vanuit ballingschap in Bourgondie met een leger naar Engeland was teruggekeerd.
ZIE OP WIKIPEDIA:
”After a failed plot to crown Edward’s brother, George, Duke of Clarence, Warwick instead restored Henry VI to the throne.”
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD IV OF ENGLAND
LUMINARIUM
RICHARD NEVILLE, EARL OF WARWICK
[2]
BRITAIN’S BLOODY CROWN
THE KINGMAKER MUST DIE
[WARS OF THE ROSES DOCUMENTARY]
[3]
NEVILL FEAST
A GLIMPSE AT WARWICK’S NATURAL DAUGHTER MARGARET
ONCE UPON A TIME IN HISTORY
MARGARET ALMOST-NEVILLE
[4]
WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF EDGECOTE MOOR
LUMINARIUM
THE BATTLE OF EDGECOTE
[5]
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD II OF ENGLAND
[6]
THE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES
”Henry was by now fully determined to take the throne, but presenting a rationale for this action proved a dilemma.[2] It was argued that Richard, through his tyranny and misgovernment, had rendered himself unworthy of being king.[98] However, Henry was not next in line to the throne; the heir presumptive was Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, great-grandson of Edward III’s second surviving son, Lionel. Bolingbroke’s father, John of Gaunt, was Edward’s third son to survive to adulthood”
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD II OF ENGLAND/DOWNFALL
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD II OF ENGLAND
[7]
Door tijdgenoten werd het conflict ”Cousins war” genoemd, omdat de Huizen Lancaster en York aan elkaar verwant waren, beiden behorend tot het Huis Plantagenet, en zij cousins [neven, vaak verre neven] van elkaar waren.
De term ”Rozenoorlogen”, verwijzend naar de symbolen de Witte Roos [Huis van York] en de Rode Roos [Huis van Lancaster] is pas een eeuw later in zwang gekomen, met name door Shakespeare’s koningsdrama ”Henry VI, bestaande uit drie delen
In deel 1 romantiseert Shakespeare de gebeurtenissen [er is geen enkel historisch bewijs voor, dat het ook zo is gegaan] door de vertegenwoordigers van het Huis van York en Het Huis van Lancaster een respectievelijk witte en rode roos te laten plukken als ”strijd” symbool:
PLANTAGENET

Since you are tongue-tied and so loath to speak,
In dumb significants proclaim your thoughts:
Let him that is a true-born gentleman
And stands upon the honour of his birth,
If he suppose that I have pleaded truth,
From off this brier pluck a white rose with me.

SOMERSET

Let him that is no coward nor no flatterer,
But dare maintain the party of the truth,
Pluck a red rose from off this thorn with me.

WARWICK

I love no colours, and without all colour
Of base insinuating flattery
I pluck this white rose with Plantagenet.

SUFFOLK

I pluck this red rose with young Somerset
And say withal I think he held the right.

VERNON

Stay, lords and gentlemen, and pluck no more,
Till you conclude that he upon whose side
The fewest roses are cropp’d from the tree
Shall yield the other in the right opinion.

SOMERSET

Good Master Vernon, it is well objected:
If I have fewest, I subscribe in silence.
RICHARD

PLANTAGENET

And I.

VERNON

Then for the truth and plainness of the case.
I pluck this pale and maiden blossom here,
Giving my verdict on the white rose side.

SOMERSET

Prick not your finger as you pluck it off,
Lest bleeding you do paint the white rose red
And fall on my side so, against your will.

VERNON

If I my lord, for my opinion bleed,
Opinion shall be surgeon to my hurt
And keep me on the side where still I am.

SOMERSET

Well, well, come on: who else?

Lawyer

Unless my study and my books be false,
The argument you held was wrong in you:
To SOMERSET

In sign whereof I pluck a white rose too.
RICHARD

PLANTAGENET

Now, Somerset, where is your argument?

SOMERSET

Here in my scabbard, meditating that
Shall dye your white rose in a bloody red.
RICHARD

PLANTAGENET

Meantime your cheeks do counterfeit our roses;
For pale they look with fear, as witnessing
The truth on our side.

SHAKESPEARE, HENRY VI, PART ONE, SCENE IV,
LONDON, THE TEMPLE GARDEN

http://shakespeare.mit.edu/1henryvi/full.html

”PLANTAGENET” IS RICHARD PLANTAGENET, DE HERTOG VAN YORK, MET ALS SYMBOOL DE WITTE ROOS
SOMERSET, HENRY BEAUFORT, POLITIEKE TEGENSTANDER  VAN DE HERTOG VAN YORK EN BEHOREND TOT DE ONWETTIGE TAK VAN HET HUIS LANCASTER, MET ALS SYMBOOL DE RODE ROOS

[8]

WIKIPEDIA
WARS OF THE ROSES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wars_of_the_Roses

THE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES

WARS OF THE ROSES/CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES/A TRAVEL TO THE PAST
ASTRID ESSED
3 FEBRUARY 2015

https://www.astridessed.nl/the-wars-of-the-rosescauses-of-the-wars-of-the-rosesa-travel-to-the-past/

[9]
WIKIPEDIA
FIRST BATTLE OF ST ALBANS
[10]
WIKIPEDIA
ENMITY OF MARGARET AND THE DUKE OF YORK
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA MARGARET OF ANJOU
ENGLISH HISTORY/THE WARS OF THE ROSES/MARGARET OF ANJOU AND RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK, TWO MAJOR PLAYERS
ASTRID ESSED
11 JANUARY 2015
[11]
Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset,[a] KG ( c. 1406 – 22 May 1455), was an English nobleman and an important figure in the Wars of the Roses and in the Hundred Years’ War. He also succeeded in the title of 4th Earl of Somersetand was created 1st Earl of Dorset and 1st Marquess of Dorset (previously held by his father and later forfeited), and Count of Mortain. He was known for his deadly rivalry with Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York.”
WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND OF BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET
HOUSE OF BEAUFORT
[12]
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD II OF ENGLAND/DOWNFALL
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD II OF ENGLAND
[13]
Toen de laatste koning uit het Franse geslacht Capet, koning Charles IV overleed, was zijn naaste mannelijke bloedverwant de zoon van zijn zuster
Isabella of France, de Engelse koning Edward III
De Franse troon werd door zijn moeder Isabella [die toen de macht achter de troon was] voor hem geclaimd, maar aangezien vrouwen in Frankrijk waren  uitgesloten van de erfopvolging, kon de zoon van een vrouw [Isabella was de dochter van de in 1314 overleden koning Philips IV en zuster van Charles IV]
ook niet opvolgen
Gevolg was uiteindelijk, dat Edward III later de Honderdjarige Oorlog startte
om de Franse troon te bemachtigen
WIKIPEDIA
HUNDRED YEAR’S WAR/ORIGIN OF THE CONFLICT
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
HUNDRED YEARS WAR
[14]
WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD, THE BLACK PRINCE
[15]
WIKIPEDIA
PRIMOGENITURE
[16]
KONING HENRY I, ZOON VAN WILLEM DE VEROVERAAR, LIET DE EDELEN ZWEREN, ZIJN ENIG OVERGEBLEVEN KIND, DOCHTER MATHILDA, TE ERKENNEN ALS KONINGIN VAN ENGELAND
DIT DEDEN ZE ZEER TEGEN HUN ZIN, MAAR NA DE DOOD VAN HENRY I KWAMEN DE EDELEN DAARTEGEN IN OPSTAND EN CLAIMDE DE NEEF VAN MATHILDA, STEPHEN VAN BLOIS, EEN KLEINZOON VAN WILLEN DE VEROVERAAR VAN MOEDERSKANT, DE TROON
EEN JARENLANGE STRIJD TUSSEN MATHILDA EN STEPHEN BRANDDE LOS, DE ANARCHY GENAAMD, MAAR EINDIGDE TOCH IN EEN OVERWINNING VOOR MATHILDA, OMDAT IN HET VERDRAG VAN WALLINFORD [OOK WEL BEKEND ALS VERDRAG VAN WINCHESTER] WERD BEPAALD, DAT STEPHEN TIJDENS ZIJN LEVEN KONING ZOU ZIJN, MAAR DAT MATHILDA’S ZOON, DE LATERE HENRY II [VADER VAN RICHARD LEEUWENHART EN JAN ZONDER LAND] HEM ZOU OPVOLGEN
ZIE:
”Meanwhile, Matilda’s younger brother, William Adelin, died in the White Ship disaster of 1120, leaving Matilda’s father and England facing a potential succession crisis. On Emperor Henry V’s death, Matilda was recalled to Normandy by her father, who arranged for her to marry Geoffrey of Anjou to form an alliance to protect his southern borders. Henry I had no further legitimate children and nominated Matilda as his heir, making his court swear an oath of loyalty to her and her successors, but the decision was not popular in the Anglo-Norman court. Henry died in 1135, but Matilda and Geoffrey faced opposition from Anglo-Norman barons. The throne was instead taken by Matilda’s cousin Stephen of Blois, who enjoyed the backing of the English Church. Stephen took steps to solidify his new regime but faced threats both from neighbouring powers and from opponents within his kingdom.”
WIKIPEDIA
EMPRESS MATHILDA
WIKIPEDIA
THE ANARCHY
”Stephen announced the Treaty of Winchester in Winchester Cathedral: he recognised Henry FitzEmpress as his adopted son and successor, in return for Henry doing homage to him. Other conditions included:
  • Stephen promised to listen to Henry’s advice, but retained all his royal powers;
  • Stephen’s remaining son, William, would do homage to Henry and renounce his claim to the throne, in exchange for promises of the security of his lands;
  • Key royal castles would be held on Henry’s behalf by guarantors, whilst Stephen would have access to Henry’s castles;
  • The numerous foreign mercenaries would be demobilised and sent home.[4]
Stephen and Henry sealed the treaty with a kiss of peace in the cathedral.[5] Henry II later rewarded Wallingford for its assistance in the struggle by giving the town its royal charter in 1155.”
TREATY OF WALLINGFORD/TERMS OF THE TREATY
ORIGINELE BRON
TREATY OF WALLINGFORD
THE WARS OF THE ROSES/LANCASTER AND YORK/USURPATION AND THE RIGHT TO THE THRONE THROUGH FEMALES
ASTRID ESSED
17 FEBRUARY 2015
[17]
‘Henry was by now fully determined to take the throne, but presenting a rationale for this action proved a dilemma.[2] It was argued that Richard, through his tyranny and misgovernment, had rendered himself unworthy of being king.[98] However, Henry was not next in line to the throne; the heir presumptive was Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, great-grandson of Edward III’s second surviving son, Lionel. Bolingbroke’s father, John of Gaunt, was Edward’s third son to survive to adulthood”
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD II OF ENGLAND/DOWNFALL
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD II OF ENGLAND
BRITAIN’S BLOODIEST DYNASTY
TYRANNY
PART 4 OF 4
[RICHARD II]
Henry IV (15 April 1367 – 20 March 1413), also known as Henry Bolingbroke (/ˈbɒlɪŋbrʊk/), was King of England from 1399 to 1413.”
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY IV OF ENGLAND
[18]
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY IV OF ENGLAND
[19]
Voor het eerst in de geschiedenis van het Huis Plantagenet was met afzetting van een koning de erfelijke lijn verbroken:
Er was al eerder een koning afgezet, koning Edward II, door toedoen van zijn van hem vervreemde vrouw, Isabella of France en haar bondgenoot [wellicht minnaar] Roger Mortimer, maar dat was geweest ten gunste van zijn [Edward II’s] eigen zoon, de latere Edward III, waarmee de opvolgingslijn niet werd verbroken
WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD II OF ENGLAND
[20]
JOHN OF GAUNT, OFTEWEL JAN VAN GENT, WERD HERTOG VAN LANCASTER ”JURE UXORIS”/BIJ HET RECHT VAN ZIJN VROUW
ZIJN VROUW, BLANCHE VAN LANCASTER, WAS DE DOCHTER VAN HENRY GROSMONT, HERTOG VAN LANCASTER EN JOHN OF GAUNT ERFDE BIJ DE DOOD VAN ZIJN SCHOONVADER DIENS HERTOGELIJKE TITEL
BLANCHE OF LANCASTER WAS DE MOEDER VAN DE LATERE KONING HENRY IV [HENRY OF BOLINGBROKE], DIE ZIJN NEEF,
KONING RICHARD II, AFZETTE ALS KONING
ZIE
Jure uxoris (a Latin phrase meaning “by right of (his) wife”[1][2]) is a title of nobility used by a man because his wife holds the office or title suo jure (“in her own right”). Similarly, the husband of an heiress could become the legal possessor of her lands. For example, married women in England were legally incapable of owning real estate until the Married Women’s Property Act 1882.
WIKIPEDIA
JURE UXORIS
WIKIPEDIA
JOHN OF GAUNT
”On 19 May 1359 at Reading Abbey, John married his third cousinBlanche of Lancaster, younger of the two daughters of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster. Both shared a common descent from King Henry III. The wealth she brought to the marriage was the foundation of John’s fortune. Blanche died on 12 September 1368 at Tutbury Castle, while her husband was overseas.
WIKIPEDIA
JOHN OF GAUNT/MARRIAGES
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
JOHN OF GAUNT
WIKIPEDIA
BLANCHE OF LANCASTER
”Henry was the son of John of Gaunt (the fourth son of Edward III) and Blanche of Lancaster. ”
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY IV OF ENGLAND
[21]
WIKIPEDIA
LIONEL OF ANTWERP, 1ST DUKE OF CLARENCE
[22]
Philippa of Clarence (16 August 1355 – 5 January 1382) was the suo jure Countess of Ulster.
WIKIPEDIA
PHILIPPA, 5TH COUNTESS OF ULSTER
[23]
‘Henry was by now fully determined to take the throne, but presenting a rationale for this action proved a dilemma.[2] It was argued that Richard, through his tyranny and misgovernment, had rendered himself unworthy of being king.[98] However, Henry was not next in line to the throne; the heir presumptive was Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, great-grandson of Edward III’s second surviving son, Lionel. Bolingbroke’s father, John of Gaunt, was Edward’s third son to survive to adulthood”
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD II OF ENGLAND/DOWNFALL
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD II OF ENGLAND
[24]
”Born on 27 December 1388,[2][3][4] Anne Mortimer was the eldest of the four children of Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March (1374–1398), and Eleanor Holland(1370–1405).[3] She had two brothers, Edmund, 5th Earl of March (1391–1425), and Roger (1393–1413?), as well as a sister, Eleanor.[3]

Anne’s father was a descendant of Lionel, Duke of Clarence, second surviving son of King Edward III of England, an ancestry which made Mortimer a potential heir to the throne during the reign of the childless King Richard II. Upon Roger Mortimer’s death in 1398, this claim passed to his son and heir, Anne’s brother Edmund, Earl of March.[5] In 1399, Richard II was deposed by Henry IV, of the House of Lancaster, making Edmund Mortimer a dynastic threat to the new king, who in turn placed both Edmund and his brother Roger under royal custody.”

WIKIPEDIA

ANNE DE MORTIMER/EARLY LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_de_Mortimer#Early_life

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIA

ANNE DE MORTIMER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_de_Mortimer

[25]
KORTE STAMBOOM/
AFSTAMMING RICHARD, HERTOG VAN YORK VAN DE TWEEDE
ZOON VAN EDWARD III
VOORAF:
KING EDWARD III [married with Philippa of Hainault
A
LIONEL OF ANTWERP, FIRST DUKE OF CLARENCE EN
DE TWEEDE ZOON VAN EDWARD III [ [married with Elizabeth de Burgh, 4th Countess of Ulster]
B
PHILIPPA OF CLARENCE, 5TH COUNTESS OF ULSTER, DOCHTER VAN LIONEL OF ANTWERP EN ELIZABETH DE BURGH:
PHILIPPA OF CLARENCE, 5TH COUNTESS OF ULSTER
[Married with Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March]
C
ROGER MORTIMER, FOURTH EARL OF MARCH, ZOON VAN PHILIPPA OF CLARENCE EN EDMUND MORTIMER, 3RD EARL OF MARCH.
[Married with Alianore Holland
D
ANNE DE MORTIMER, DOCHTER VAN ROGER MORTIMER, 4RD EARL
OF MARCH EN ALIANORE HOLLAND [Married Richard of Conisburgh, Third Earl of Cambridge en zoon
van Edmund of Langley, First Duke of York,, vierde zoon van Edward III ]
E
RICHARD, THIRD DUKE OF YORK [Titel erfde hij van de oudere broer
van zijn vader Richard Conisburgh, genaamd Edmund, second Duke of York,
die kinderloos overleed]
[Married Cecily Neville, uit de beroemde en invloedrijke familie Neville]
RICHARD, HERTOG VAN YORK WAS DE VADER VAN DE LATERE KONINGEN EDWARD IV EN RICHARD III [MOEDER WAS CECILY NEVILLE]
[26]
WIKIPEDIA
USURPATOR
[27]
WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND MORTIMER, 5TH EARL OF MARCH
THE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES
[28]
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY V OF ENGLAND
[29]
WIKIPEDIA
SOUTHAMPTON PLOT
[30]
WIKIPEDIA
SOUTHAMPTON PLOT
NEVILFEAST
LETTERS OF RICHARD EARL OF CAMBRIDGE TO HENRY V
TEXT

In 1415, when his son, Richard (later duke of York), was four years old, Richard, earl of Cambridge, was “accused of a treasonable conspiracy, indicted, convicted and beheaded” (p45). This has come to be known as the Southampton Plot. During his captivity he wrote two letters to the king, Henry V: a letter of confession and a plea for mercy, “but neither had any effect upon Henry” (p45).

Cambridge’s letter of confession:

My most dredfulle and sovereyne lege Lord, lyke to yowre hynesse to wete touchyng the purpose cast ageyns ʒowre hye estate. Havyng ye Erle of Marche by his aune assent, and by the assent of myself, Wher of y most me repent of all worde [worldly] thyng and by the acord of the lord Scrop and Sir Thomas Grey, to have hadde ye forseyd erle into the lond of Walys wyth outyn yowre lycence, takying upon hym the sovereynte of ʒys lond; ʒyf yondyr manis persone wych they callyn kynge Richard hadde nauth bene alyve, as Y wot wel yat he nys not alyve, for the wyche poynt I putte me holy in ʒowre grace. And as for ye forme of a proclamacyon wych schulde hadde bene cryde in ye Erle name, as he heyre to the Corowne of Ynglond ageyns ʒow, my lege lord, calde by auntreu [untrue] name Harry of Lancastre usurpur of Yngland, to the entent to hadde made the more people to hadde draune to hym and from ʒow, of the wych crye Scrop knew not of by me, but Grey dyd, havyng wyth the erle a baner of ye Armes of Ynglond, havyng also ye coroune of Speyne on a palet, wych, my lege Lord, is one of ʒowre weddys, for ye wych offence y put me holy in ʒowre grace. And as for ye p’pose takyn by Unfrevyle and Wederyngtoun for ye bryngyng in of that persone whych they namyd kyng Richard, and Herry Percye oute of Scotland wyth a power of Scottys, and theyre power togedyrs neyming to theyme able to geve ʒow a bataylle, of ye wych entent Sir Thomas Grey wyste of, and i also, but nauth Scrop as by me; of ye wych knawing i submytte me holy into ʒowre grace. And as touchyng the Erle of Marche, and Lusy hys man, they seyden me both yat the Erle was nauth schreven of a great whyle, but at all hys confessours putte hym in penaunce to clayme yat yey callyddyn hys ryth that wold be that tyme that every iknew, heny thyng yat ever to hym longyd … … … Of ye which poynttes and artycles here befor wretyn, and of al odyr wych now arne nauth in mynde, but treuly as oft as heny to myn mynd fallyn i schal deuly and treuly certefye now thee of, besekyng to now, my lege Lord, for hys love yat syffyrd passyoun on ye good fryday see compassyoun on me ʒowre lege men, and yf heny of thes persones whos names arne contenyd in ʒyz tyme, i schalle be redy wyth the myth of god to make hyt good, as ʒee my lege Lord will awarde me.

_____________________

_____________________

A plea for mercy

Myn most dredfull and sovereyne Lege Lord, i Richard York ʒowre humble subgyt and very lege man, beseke ʒow of Grace of al maner offenses wych y have done or assentyd to in heny kynde, by steryng of odyr folke eggynge me yer to, where in y wote wel i have hyll offendyd to ʒowre Hynesse; besechyng ʒow at the reverence of God yat ʒyke to take me in to the handys of ʒowre gred goodnesse. My lege Lord, my fulle trust is yat ʒee wylle have consyderacyoun, thauth yat myn persone be of none valwe, ʒowre hye goodnesse wher God hath sette ʒow in so hye estat to every lege man yat to ʒow longyth plenteousely to geve grace, yat ʒow lyke to accept ʒys myn symple reqwest for ye love of oure Lady and of ye blysfulle Holy Gost, to whome I pray yat yey mot ʒowre hert enduce to all pyte and grace for yeyre hye goodnesse.
[30]
R.I.P.
 Latin requiēscat (or requiēscant) in pāce
[31]
ZIE NOOT 25
[32]
KORT:
De Beauforts, ook wel de ”onwettige” tak van het Huis Lancaster genoemd, behoorden feitelijk helemaal niet tot het Huis Lancaster,.aangezien zij
geen kinderen waren van John of Gaunt [derde zoon van Edward III]
en zijn eerste vrouw, Blanche of Lancaster, maar afstamden van John of Gaunt en zijn DERDE vrouw, Katherine Swynford:
John of Gaunt’s eerste vrouw, Blanche of Lancaster, was de dochter van Henry Grosmont, de eerste hertog van Lancaster [zijn vader was Graaf Henry of Lancaster] en als zodanig erfde John of Gaunt de hertogelijke titel van zijn
vrouw.
”Jure uxoris”
John of Gaunt’s zoon, Henry Bolingbroke, de latere Henry IV, was ook de zoon van Blanche of Lancaster en als zodanig een Lancaster.
DE BEAUFORTS echter waren dus kinderen van John of Lancaster en zijn derde vrouw Katherine Swynford, zijn gewezen maitresse.
Omdat zij waren geboren tijdens het huwelijk van John of Gaunt, waren ze onwettig, maar werden achteraf gewettigd door zowel Richard II als  Paus Bonifacius IX  en kregen de naam Beaufort.
Maar met de fysieke Lancaster afstamming hadden zij dus niets te maken.
Wat hen echter een rol gaf, was dat zij halfbroers/zusters waren van de eerste Lancaster koning, Henry IV en dus partij werden in het conflict .
WIKIPEDIA
HOUSE OF BEAUFORT
[33]
WIKIPEDIA
MARGARET OF ANJOU
WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND  BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET
[34]
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD, 3RD DUKE OF YORK, PROTECTOR OF THE REALM, 1453-1455
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD, 3RD DUKE OF YORK
WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET, POLITICAL POWER AND CONFLICT
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY VI OF ENGLAND
[35]
WIKIPEDIA
FIRST BATTLE OF ST ALBANS
”The first battle of St Albans was relatively minor in military terms,[dubious – discuss] but politically was a complete victory for York and the Nevilles: York had captured the king and restored himself to complete power, while Somerset and the Nevilles’ northern rivals Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland and Lord Clifford all fell during the rout”
WIKIPEDIA
FIRST BATTLE OF ST ALBANS/RESULT
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
FIRST BATTLE OF ST ALBANS
[36]
”By now York was determined to depose Somerset by one means or another, and in May 1455 he raised an army. He confronted Somerset and the King in an engagement known as the First Battle of St Albans which marked the beginning of the Wars of the Roses. Somerset was killed in a last wild charge from the house where he had been sheltering.
WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET/POLITICAL POWER AND CONFLICT
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET
[37]
WIKIPEDIA
WARS OF THE ROSES
[38]
WIKIPEDIA
LOVEDAY, 1458
[39]
”The Act of Accord was passed by the English Parliament on 25 October 1460,[1] three weeks after Richard, Duke of York, had entered the Council Chamber and laid his hand on the empty throne. Under the Act, King Henry VI of England was to retain the crown for life but York and his heirs were to succeed, excluding Henry’s son, Edward of Westminster. Henry was forced to agree to the Act.”
WIKIPEDIA
ACT OF ACCORD
[40]
WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF WAKEFIELD
[41]
WIKIPEDIA
GAME OF THRONES
[42]
”When you play the game of thrones, you win or you die.
There is no middle ground”
[Cersei Lannister in the Game of Thrones]
CERSEI LANNISTER: IN THE GAME OF THRONES YOU WIN OR YOU DIE
”The title of the episode is part of a quote from Cersei Lannister during the final confrontation with Eddard: “When you play the game of thrones, you win or you die. There is no middle ground.”
WIKIPEDIA
YOU WIN OR YOU DIE
[43]
De term voor Edward IV ”Rozenoorlogkoning” houdt verband met het feit, dat Edward, als 7de Earl [Graaf] van March en erfgenaam van zijn vader de hertog van York, letterlijk met ”bloed, zweet en tranen” voor de troon heeft moeten vechten:
Zijn vaders superieure claim op de troon [van moederskant afstammend van de TWEEDE  zoon van Edward III, terwijl de Lancasters afstamden van de DERDE
zoon] ging na zijn vaders dood op hem over.
En dan was er ook nog het [van koning Henry VI afgedwongen] Act of Accord, dat inhield, dat Henry VI tijdens zijn leven zou regeren, maar dat na zijn dood de hertog van York en zijn erfgenamen de troon zouden bestijgen [waarmee de eigen zoon van de koning, Edward van Westminster, werd gepasseerd]
Helemaal ”eerlijk” was de troonsbestijging van Edward IV [ondanks zijn superieure claim dus niet, want Henry VI was op dat moment nog in leven…..
MAAR GOED:
Edward heeft dus keihard moeten vechten voor zijn troon en tijdens zijn bewind hebben de meeste veldslagen van de Rozenoorlogen plaatsgehad….
ZIE AAN DE RECHTERKANT VAN ONDERSTAANDE LINK
[44]
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/REBELLION AND DEATH
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
[45]
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD III OF ENGLAND/KING OF ENGLAND
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD III OF ENGLAND
[46]
WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF BOSWORTH [BATTLE OF  BOSWORTH FIELD]
[47]
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY VII OF ENGLAND/ANCESTRY AND EARLY LIFE
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY VII OF ENGLAND
[48]
”She was the daughter and sole heiress of John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset (1404–1444), a legitimised grandson of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (third surviving son of King Edward III) by his mistress Katherine Swynford.”
WIKIPEDIA
LADY MARGARET BEAUFORT/ORIGINS
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
LADY MARGARET BEAUFORT
WIKIPEDIA
HOUSE OF BEAUFORT
[49]
”The Battle of Bosworth Field (or Battle of Bosworth) was the last significant battle of the Wars of the Roses, the civil war between the Houses of Lancaster and York that extended across England in the latter half of the 15th century. Fought on 22 August 1485, the battle was won by the Lancastrians. Their leader Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, became the first English monarch of the Tudor dynasty by his victory and subsequent marriage to a Yorkist princess. His opponent Richard III, the last king of the House of York, was killed during the battle, the last English monarch to die in battle. Historians consider Bosworth Field to mark the end of the Plantagenet dynasty, making it one of the defining moments of English history.”
WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF BOSWORTH [BATTLE OF  BOSWORTH FIELD]
[50]
WIKIPEDIA
HOUSE OF TUDOR
[51]
”Henry Tudor, the future Henry VII, succeeded in presenting himself as a candidate not only for traditional Lancastrian supporters, but also for discontented supporters of their rival House of York, and he took the throne by right of conquest
WIKIPEDIA
HOUSE OF TUDOR
WIKIPEDIA
RIGHT OF CONQUEST
[52]
”By 1483, Henry’s mother was actively promoting him as an alternative to Richard III, despite her being married to Lord Stanley, a Yorkist. At Rennes Cathedral on Christmas Day 1483, Henry pledged to marry Elizabeth of York, the eldest daughter of Edward IV, who was also Edward’s heir since the presumed death of her brothers, the Princes in the Tower, King Edward V and his brother Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY VII OF ENGLAND/RISE TO THE THRONE
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY VII OF ENGLAND
[53]
”The family is descended from John of Gaunt by his then-mistress Katherine Swynford. Gaunt married Swynford in 1396, and their children were legitimized by Richard II and Pope Boniface IX. ”
WIKIPEDIA
HOUSE OF BEAUFORT
[54]
ZIE NOOT 25
[55]
WIKIPEDIA
MARGARET OF ANJOU
WIKIPEDIA
ELIZABETH OF YORK
[56]
QUEEN BY RIGHT OF QUEEN REGNANT
”A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch, equivalent in rank to a king, who reigns in her own right, as opposed to a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, or a queen regent, who is the guardian of a child monarch and reigns temporarily in the child’s stead”
WIKIPEDIA
QUEEN REGNANT
WIKIPEDIA
QUEEN CONSORT
[57]
”Three of Richard’s sisters married dukes (the youngest Cecily, marrying Richard, Duke of York), and Richard himself married Alice Montacute, daughter and heiress of Thomas Montacute, the Earl of Salisbury.
…..
…..
”At the time of the marriage, the Salisbury inheritance was not guaranteed, as not only was Earl Thomas still alive, but in 1424 he remarried (to Alice Chaucer, granddaughter of the poet Geoffrey Chaucer). This second marriage was without issue and when the Earl Thomas Montacute died in 1428, Richard Neville and Alice were confirmed as the Earl and Countess of Salisbury. From this point on, Richard Neville will be referred to as Salisbury.”
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 5TH EARL OF SALISBURY/BACKGROUND
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 5TH EARL OF SALISBURY
WIKIPEDIA
JURE UXORIS
[58]
ZIE NOOT 57
[59]
”But the male line of the Nevilles was of native origin, and the family may well have been part of the pre-conquest aristocracy of Northumbria.[1] The continuation of landowning among such native families was more common in the far north of England than further south.”
WIKIPEDIA
HOUSE OF NEVILLE/ORIGINS
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
HOUSE OF NEVILLE
[60]
WIKIPEDIA
HOUSE OF NEVILLE/WARS OF THE ROSES
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
HOUSE OF NEVILLE
[61]
Cecily Neville (3 May 1415 – 31 May 1495) was an English noblewoman, the wife of Richard, Duke of York (1411–1460), and the mother of two kings of EnglandEdward IV and Richard III. Cecily Neville was known as “the Rose of Raby”, because she was born at Raby Castle in Durham, and “Proud Cis”, because of her pride and a temper that went with it, although she was also known for her piety. She herself signed her name “Cecylle”.”
WIKIPEDIA
CECILY NEVILLE, DUCHESS OF YORK
CECILY NEVILLE, DUCHESS [HERTOGIN] OF YORK, WAS DE ZUSTER VAN DE VADER VAN DE 16DE GRAAF VAN WARWICK [THE KINGMAKER],
RICHARD, DE VIJFDE GRAAF VAN SALISBURY
MET ANDERE WOORDEN:
CECILY NEVILLE, DUCHESS OF YORK WAS WARWICK’S TANTE.
ZIE OOK
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 5TH EARL OF SALISBURY
[62]
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/BECOMING WARWICK
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
[63]
BROTHER AGAINST BROTHER/COUSIN AGAINST COUSIN
VOORBEELD:
IN DE SLAG BIJ NORTHAMPTON [1460] STONDEN DE LATERE EDWARD IV [TOEN NOG EDWARD OF YORK,  7DE EARL OF MARCH] EN DE GRAAF VAN WARWICK TEGENOVER ONDER ANDERE HUN NEEF, THOMAS PERCY, EERSTE BARON EGREMONT, DIE AAN DE LANCASTER KANT VOCHT EN IN DEZE SLAG SNEUVELDE
THOMAS PERCY WAS EEN ZOON VAN HENRY PERCY, TWEEDE GRAAF VAN NORTHUMBERLAND EN LADY ELEANOR NEVILLE, DE ZUSTER
VAN CECILY OF YORK-NEVILLE [MOEDER VAN EDWARD IV] EN RICHARD,
VIJFDE GRAAF VAN SALISBURY, DE VADER VAN GRAAF WARWICK
WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS PERCY, 1ST BARON EGREMONT
WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF NORTHAMPTON (1460)
IN DE SLAG BIJ TOWTON [1461] STONDEN EDWARD IV [TOEN NET TOT KONING GEKROOND, WAARMEE HIJ HENRY VI VERVING] EN DE GRAAF VAN WARWICK, SAMEN MET ANDERE FAMILIELEDEN, ONDER ANDERE TEGENOVER HENRY PERCY, DE DERDE GRAAF VAN NORTHUMBERLAND EN BROER VAN THOMAS PERCY, EERSTE BARON VAN EGREMONT
[ZIE DIRECT HIERBOVEN]
DUS WEER TEGENOVER EEN NEEF, DIE AAN DE KANT VAN LANCASTER VOCHT.
OOK HENRY PERCY SNEUVELDE, IN DE SLAG BIJ TOWTON
WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF TOWTON
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY PERCY, 3RD EARL OF NORTHUMBERLAND
EN ZO GING HET SCHERING EN INSLAG
BROTHER AGAINST BROTHER/COUSIN AGAINST COUSIN……
[64]
The Wars of the Roses were a series of English civil wars for control of the throne of England fought between supporters of two rival cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, associated with the Red Rose of Lancaster, and the House of York, whose symbol was the White Rose of York. Eventually, the wars eliminated the male lines of both families.
WIKIPEDIA
WARS OF THE ROSES
[65]
WIKIPEDIA
SOUTHAMPTON PLOT
Henry was by now fully determined to take the throne, but presenting a rationale for this action proved a dilemma.[2] It was argued that Richard, through his tyranny and misgovernment, had rendered himself unworthy of being king.[98] However, Henry was not next in line to the throne; the heir presumptive was Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, great-grandson of Edward III’s second surviving son, Lionel. Bolingbroke’s father, John of Gaunt, was Edward’s third son to survive to adulthood”
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD II OF ENGLAND/DOWNFALL
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD II OF ENGLAND
 [66]
WIKIPEDIA
SOUTHAMPTON PLOT
[67]
ZIE NOOT 23 EN 65
[68]
ZIE NOOT 23
[69]
WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET/POLITICAL POWER AND CONFLICT
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET
[70]
ZIE NOOT 69
ZIE OOK
WIKIPEDIA
FIRST BATTLE OF ST ALBANS
[71]
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY VI OF ENGLAND
[72]
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD OF YORK, 3RD DUKE OF YORK
WIKIPEDIA
EDMUND BEAUFORT, 2ND DUKE OF SOMERSET
[73]
”Margaret at the time seven months pregnant, attempted to claim the regency, but gained no support. It was given instead to Henry’s cousin, Richard, Duke of York, much to the annoyance of the Queen, who strongly felt that she and her party should govern England.”
ENGLISH MONARCHS
MARGARET OF ANJOU
[74]
THE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES
MARK GOACHER
[75]
”What Cade and York were challenging was the improper influence of the king’s advisors on the application of royal authority. It is difficult to regard this as anything other than a tactic intended to prevent the imputation of treason against them. In York’s case he embellished his complaints with the inference that the king was the innocent victim of evil councillors. It was a situation from which York — the king’s true and loyal subject — would recue him; thus, allowing him to rule properly as was always his intention.
DUKE RICHARD, THE 3RD DUKE OF YORK, THE KING’S TRUE LIEGEMAN?
ZIE OOK
[76]
ZIE NOOT 23
ZIE OOK
THE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES
MARK GOACHER
[77]
THE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES
MARK GOACHER
[77]
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY VI OF ENGLAND/INSANITY AND THE ASCENDANCY OF YORK
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
HENRY VI OF ENGLAND
[78]
[78]
”When Richard, Duke of York, unsuccessfully rose up against the king in 1452, both Warwick and his father rallied to the side of King Henry VI”
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK, BECOMING WARWICK
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
[79]
CON IGGULDEN
TRINITY
CON IGGULDEN [Vertaald in het Nederlands]
HET DRIEVOUDIG VERBOND
 [80]
STAMBOOM, WAARUIT HET ZWAGERSCHAP VAN RICHARD NEVILLE, 16E GRAAF VAN WARWICK MET EDMUND BEAUFORT, 2DE HERTOG VAN SOMERSET, IS AF TE LEIDEN.
HUN VROUWEN WAREN ELKAARS HALFZUSTERS, KINDEREN VAN
RICHARD, 13E GRAAF VAN WARWICK UIT ZIJN EERSTE EN TWEEDE HUWELIJK
ZIE DIRECT HIERONDER:
RICHARD BEAUCHAMP, 13E GRAAF VAN WARWICK
UIT ZIJN EERSTE HUWELIJK MET ELIZABETH DE BERKELEY WERDEN GEBOREN:
MARGARET BEAUCHAMP, DE LATERE COUNTESS OF SHRESBURY
ELEANOR BEAUCHAMP, DE LATERE DUCHESS OF SOMERSET
ELIZABETH BEAUCHAMP, DE LATERE BARONESS LATIMER
UIT ZIJN TWEEDE HUWELIJK MET ISABEL LE DESPENSER WERDEN GEBOREN
HENRY, 14E GRAAF VAN WARWICK [OVERLEDEN IN 1446]
ANNE [DIE DAARDOOR LATER DE TITEL ERFDE], 16E GRAAF VAN WARWICK
[NA HET OVERLIJDEN VAN DE DOCHTER VAN HAAR BROER HENRY, OOK
EEN ANNE [OVERLEDEN IN 1449]
ZIEHIER DE DRAMATIS PERSONAE
RICHARD BEAUCHAMP, 13E GRAAF VAN WARWICK
ZIJN EERSTE VROUW ELIZABETH DE BERKELEY
HUN DRIE DOCHTERS
MARGARET, COUNTESS OF SHREWSBURY
ELEANOR, DUCHESS OF SOMERSET, GETROUWD MET EDMUND BEAUFORT, 2E HERTOG VAN SOMERSET
ELIZABETH, BARONESS LATIMER [GEEN WIKIPEDIA]
TWEEDE VROUW VAN RICHARD BEAUCHAMP, 13E GRAAF VAN WARWICK
ISABEL LE DESPENSER
ZOON EN DOCHTER UIT DIT TWEEDE HUWELIJK
HENRY BEAUCHAMP, 14E GRAAF VAN WARWICK
ANNE BEAUCHAMP, 16E GRAVIN VAN WARWICK
GETROUWD MET RICHARD NEVILLE, 16E GRAAF VAN WARWICK [JURE UXORIS]
[81]
”In June 1453, Somerset was granted custody of the lordship of Glamorgan – part of the Despenser heritage held by Warwick until then – and open conflict broke out between the two men.[15] Then, in the summer of that year, King Henry fell ill.[16] Somerset was a favourite of the king and Queen Margaret, and with the king incapacitated he was virtually in complete control of government.[17] This put Warwick at a disadvantage in his dispute with Somerset, and drove him into collaboration with York”
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/CIVIL WAR
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
[82]
” The political climate, influenced by the military defeat in France, then started turning against Somerset. On 27 March 1454, a group of royal councillors appointed the Duke of York protector of the realm.[19] York could now count on the support not only of Warwick, but also of Warwick’s father Salisbury, who had become more deeply involved in disputes with the House of Percy in the north of England
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/CIVIL WAR
 
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
[83]
WIKIPEDIA
PERCY-NEVILLE FEUD
[84]
WIKIPEDIA
FIRST BATTLE OF ST ALBANS
THE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES
[85]
Thomas Percy, 1st Baron Egremont (29 November 1422 – 10 July 1460) was the son of Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland, and Eleanor Neville, being made Lord Egremont in 1449. A northern baron, he became a leading figure in the internecine Percy-Neville feud, fighting at the Battle of Heworth Moor. When the Wars of the Roses began mid-decade, Egremont fought for the king on the Lancastrian side, being killed five years later at the Battle of Northampton.
WIKIPEDIA
THOMAS PERCY, 1ST BARON EGREMONT
ZOALS TE LEZEN [ZIE BOVENSTAANDE]
HET TRIESTE WAS, DAT DEZE THOMAS PERCY DE ZOON WAS VAN
GENOEMDE LORD PERCY, MAAR OOK VAN ELEANOR NEVILLE, TANTE VAN VADERSZIJDE [ZUSTER VAN ZIJN VADER] VAN WARWICK EN TANTE VAN MOEDERSZIJDE VAN DE LATERE EDWARD IV [ZUSTER VAN ZIJN MOEDER CECILY NEVILLE] , TOEN NOG DE 7E EARL OF MARCH [ZOON VAN DE HERTOG VAN YORK]
IN DE BATTLE OF NORTHAMPTON STREED THOMAS PERCY TEGEN ZIJN NEVEN WARWICK EN DE EARL OF MARCH [ZOON VAN DE HERTOG VAN YORK] EN SNEUVELDE
WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF NORTHAMPTON (1460)
[86]
THE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES
WIKIPEDIA
PERCY-NEVILLE FEUD
WIKIPEDIA
HUNDRED YEARS WAR
 [87]
BELANGRIJKE EDELEN, DIE GETROUWEN WAREN VAN KONING HENRY VI:
Edmund Beaufort, 2de hertog van York
Henry Percy, 2e Graaf van Northumberland, getrouwd met Lady Eleanor Neville, zuster van Richard Neville [de vader van Warwick, tegenpartij en bondgenoot van York] en Cecily Neville, vrouw van de hertog van York.
Humphrey Stafford, Eerste hertog van Buckingham , getrouwd met Lady Anne Neville, ook een zuster van Richard Neville en Cecily Neville, vrouw van de hertog van York
Toen al liepen de Families in de Rozenoorlogen door elkaar!
HENRY PERCY, TWEEDE GRAAF VAN NORTHUMBERLAND
HUMPHREY STAFFORD, EERSTE HERTOG VAN BUCKINGHAM
Eleanor Neville, Richard Neville en Cecily Nevilles zuster, Humphrey Stafford, Eerste hertog van Buckingham en getrouwd met de zuster van Warwick’s vader, Lady Anne Neville, die eveneens de zuster was van Cecily Neville, de vrouw van de hertog van York/Toen al stonden de families tegenover elkaar]
[88]
WIKIPEDIA
FIRST BATTLE OF ST ALBANS
[89]
WIKIPEDIA
WARS OF THE ROSES
DE DRIE RICHARDS WERDEN DOOR HET ”PARLIAMENT OF DEVILS” ALS VERRADERS GEBRANDMERKT [FIGUURLIJK] EN HUN BEZITTINGEN VERBEURD VERKLAARD [ATTAINDER]
DIT WAS VOORAL HET WERK VAN MARGARETHA VAN ANJOU
KONING HENRY VI NEIGDE ALTIJD TOT VERGEVINGSGEZINDHEID
IK DENK, DAT DE PASSAGE [ZIE HET LAATSTE CITAAT, NA DE STIPPELLIJNEN] WAARBIJ VOLLEDIG PARDON WERD AANGEBODEN VOOR WIE ZICH AAN DE KONING ONDERWIERP, VAN DE HAND VAN HENRY VI KWAM……
”The Parliament opened in the chapter house of St. Mary’s priory with a speech by the chancellor, William Waynflete, bishop of Winchester, preaching on the text ‘Grace to you and peace be multiplied’, but the government’s purpose was undoubtedly to condemn York and his kinsmen and allies as traitors. A bill accused twenty-four persons of levying war against the King at Blore Heath and Ludford, and three more (including the countess of Salisbury) of plotting  his death elsewhere. It recited York’s treasons since 1450; what had been done at St. Albans (in 1455 when the duke had eliminated several of his political opponents in a pitched battle in the streets of the town) had been an ‘execrabill and moost detestable dede’, prompted by ‘the moost diabolique unkyndnesse and wrecched envye’. Attainder was fully justified, whereby the traitors were condemned to death and all their possessions declared forfeit. Furthermore, their heirs were to be barred from inheritance forever”
……
……
”The chancellor’s choice of text for his sermon could be taken to imply an intention to pursue peace by softening the rigour of justice with the King’s prerogative of mercy, and at the end of the session Henry VI did indeed mitigate the effects of the act of attainder, insisting on a proviso that he could grant full pardon and restoration to those who humbly sought his grace”
THE HISTORY OF PARLIAMENT
ON THIS DAY: 20 NOVEMBER 1459, THE ”PARLIAMENT OF DEVILS” ASSEMBLES AT COVENTRY
”The main business of the Parliament was to pass bills of attainder for High treason against the leading Yorkist nobles, following the start of a new stage in the Wars of the Roses and the Battle of Ludford Bridge.”
WIKIPEDIA
PARLIAMENT OF DEVILS
”A bill of attainder (also known as an act of attainder or writ of attainder or bill of pains and penalties) is an act of a legislature declaring a person or group of persons guilty of some crime and punishing them, often without a trial. As with attainder resulting from the normal judicial process, the effect of such a bill is to nullify the targeted person’s civil rights, most notably the right to own property (and thus pass it on to heirs), the right to a title of nobility, and, in at least the original usage, the right to life itself.”
WIKIPEDIA
BILL OF ATTAINDER
NA DEZE HANDELINGEN VAN HET PARLIAMENT OF DEVILS, ONTVLUCHTTEN DE  DRIE RICHARDS [MET YORK’S ZOON EDWARD, DE EARL OF MARCH, LATER EDWARD IV] HET LAND
YORK NAAR IERLAND, WARWICK, NEEF EDWARD [EARL OF MARCH] EN VADER RICHARD NEVILLE, 5E GRAAF VAN SALISBURY, NAAR FRANKRIJK, CALAIS [LAATSTE ENGELSE BOLWERK IN FRANKRIJK,
WARWICK WAS KAPITEIN VAN CALAIS
”Forced to flee the country, York left for Dublin, Ireland, with his second son Edmund, Earl of Rutland, while Warwick and Salisbury sailed to Calais, accompanied by the Duke’s son, Edward, Earl of March (the future King Edward IV).”
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/HOUSE OF YORK TRIUMPHANT
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
[90]
WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD OF WESTMINSTER, PRINCE OF WALES
[91]
‘Forced to flee the country, York left for Dublin, Ireland, with his second son Edmund, Earl of Rutland, while Warwick and Salisbury sailed to Calais, accompanied by the Duke’s son, Edward, Earl of March (the future King Edward IV).”
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/HOUSE OF YORK TRIUMPHANT
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
[92]
WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF NORTHAMPTON (1460)
[93]
”The Act of Accord was passed by the English Parliament on 25 October 1460,[1] three weeks after Richard, Duke of York, had entered the Council Chamber and laid his hand on the empty throne. Under the Act, King Henry VI of England was to retain the crown for life but York and his heirs were to succeed, excluding Henry’s son, Edward of Westminster. Henry was forced to agree to the Act.”
WIKIPEDIA
ACT OF ACCORD
[94]
”The Duke of York was either killed in the battle or captured and immediately executed. Some later works support the folklore that he suffered a crippling wound to the knee and was unhorsed, and he and his closest followers then fought to the death at that spot;[38] others relate the account that he was taken prisoner (by one Sir James Luttrell of Devonshire), mocked by his captors and beheaded.[40]

His son Edmund, Earl of Rutland attempted to escape over Wakefield Bridge, but was overtaken and killed, possibly by Clifford in revenge for his father’s death at St Albans. Salisbury’s second son Sir Thomas Neville also died in the battle.[21] Salisbury’s son in law William, Lord Harington and Harington’s father, William Bonville, were captured and executed immediately after the battle. (The Bonvilles had been engaged in a feud with the Earl of Devon and the Courtenay family in Devon and Cornwall.) Salisbury himself escaped the battlefield but was captured during the night, and was taken to the Lancastrian camp. Although the Lancastrian nobles might have been prepared to allow Salisbury to ransom himself, he was dragged out of Pontefract Castle and beheaded by local commoners, to whom he had been a harsh overlord”

WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF WAKEFIELD/CASUALTIES
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF WAKEFIELD
[95]
[95]
”The death of his father left Edward, now Duke of York, at the head of the Yorkist faction. He defeated a Lancastrian army at Mortimer’s Cross in Herefordshire on 2–3 February 1461. He then united his forces with those of Warwick, whom Margaret’s army had defeated at the Second Battle of St Albans (17 February 1461), during which Henry VI had been rescued by his supporters.[7] Edward’s father had restricted his ambitions to becoming Henry’s heir, but Edward now took the more radical step of proclaiming himself king in March 1461.[7] He then advanced against the Lancastrians, having his life saved on the battlefield by the Welsh Knight Sir David Ap Mathew. He defeated the Lancastrian army in the exceptionally bloody Battle of Towton in Yorkshire on 29 March 1461.[8] Edward had effectively broken the military strength of the Lancastrians, and he returned to London for his coronation. King Edward IV named Sir David Ap Mathew Standard Bearer of England and allowed him to use “Towton” on the Mathew family crest.”
WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD IV OF ENGLAND/ACCESSION TO THE THRONE
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD IV OF ENGLAND
[96]
[97]
”Warwick’s position after the accession of Edward IV was stronger than ever.[59] He had now succeeded to his father’s possessions, and in 1462 he also inherited his mother’s lands and the Salisbury title.[60] Altogether he had an annual income from his lands of over £7,000 far more than any other man in the realm but the king.[61] Edward confirmed Warwick’s position as Captain of Calais, and made him High Admiral of England and Steward of the Duchy of Lancaster, along with several other offices”
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/WARWICK’S APEX
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
[98]
””They have but two rulers, M. de Warwick and another whose name I have forgotten.”
– The Governor of Abbeville in a letter to Louis XI[2][58]
AAN DE RECHTERKANT VAN
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/WARWICK’S APEX
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
[99]
WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF MORTIMER’S CROSS
[100]
WIKIPEDIA
JASPER TUDOR
[101]
”I myself hold the opinion, that when King Edward would have concentrated
on the military (he was an extremely capable military commander)
 and the Earl of Warwick on
 ruling and diplomacy, they whould have been made a deadly double and perhaps
ruled England happily together, if at least Edward had not fallen ill and died
THE WARS OF THE ROSES/CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES/A TRAVEL OF THE PAST
ASTRID ESSED
3 FEBRUARI 2015
[102]
”When you play the game of thrones, you win or you die.
There is no middle ground”
[Cersei Lannister in the Game of Thrones]
CERSEI LANNISTER: IN THE GAME OF THRONES YOU WIN OR YOU DIE
”The title of the episode is part of a quote from Cersei Lannister during the final confrontation with Eddard: “When you play the game of thrones, you win or you die. There is no middle ground.”
WIKIPEDIA
YOU WIN OR YOU DIE
[103]
”Sir John Grey was killed in the Second Battle of St Albans in 1461, fighting for the Lancastrian cause.[1] His widow, Dame Elizabeth Grey, later secretly married Edward IV who was the successful Yorkist claimant to the throne.”
WIKIPEDIA
JOHN GREY OF GROBY/DEATH AT THE BATTLE OF ST ABLANS
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
JOHN GREY OF GROBY
[104]
”At the negotiations with the French, Warwick had intimated that King Edward was interested in a marriage arrangement with the French crown, the intended bride being Louis XI‘s sister-in-law, Bona, daughter of Louis, Duke of Savoy.[71] This marriage was not to be, however, because in September 1464, Edward revealed that he was already married, to Elizabeth Woodville.[72] The marriage caused great offence to Warwick: not only due to the fact that his plans had been sabotaged, but also the secrecy with which the king had acted.[73] The marriage – contracted on 1 May of the same year – was not made public before Warwick pressed Edward on the issue at a council meeting, and in the meanwhile Warwick had been unknowingly deceiving the French into believing the king was serious about the marriage proposal.”
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/EARLY TENSIONS
 
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
 
[105]
For Edward the marriage may very well have been a love match, but in the long run he sought to build the Woodville family into a powerhouse independent of Warwick’s influence.[74] The marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville caused Warwick to lose his power and influence. He accused Elizabeth, and her mother Jacquetta of Luxembourg, of witchcraft to try and restore the power that he had lost
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/EARLY TENSIONS
 
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
 
BRITAIN’S BLOODY CROWN
THE KINGMAKER MUST DIE/EP 2 OF 4 (WARS OF THE ROSES DOCUMENTARY
[106]
”VERRADER WILDE ZELF OP DE TROON
De Graaf van Warwick, bijgenaamd ”The Kingmaker” steunde
Hendrik VI van het Huis van Lancaster met zijn rijkdom., welsprekendheid en leger.
Hij liep over toen zijn neef van het huis York als Eduard IV werd gekroond.
Uit machtswellust nam de Graaf van Warwick na een veldslag de koning gevangen
en probeerde hij zelf op de Engelse troon te komen.”
Bladzijde 24
Magazine ”Ontdek”
Aflevering:
De geschiedenis achter Game of Thrones
[107]
This was not enough to cause a complete fallout between the two men, though from this point on Warwick increasingly stayed away from court.[76] The promotion of Warwick’s brother George to Archbishop of York shows that the earl was still in favour with the king. In July 1465, when Henry VI was once more captured, it was Warwick who escorted the fallen king to his captivity in the Tower.
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/EARLY TENSIONS
WIKIPEDIA
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
[108]
”The Burgundian party was a political allegiance against France that formed during the latter half of the Hundred Years’ War. The term “Burgundians” refers to the supporters of the Duke of BurgundyJohn the Fearless, that formed after the assassination of Louis I, Duke of Orléans. Their opposition to the Armagnac party, the supporters of Charles, Duke of Orléans, led to a civil war.”
WIKIPEDIA
BURGUNDIAN (PARTY)
”The English negotiated with their Burgundian allies to transfer her to their custody, with Bishop Pierre Cauchon of Beauvais, an English partisan, assuming a prominent role in these negotiations and her later trial.[68] The final agreement called for the English to pay the sum of 10,000 livres tournois[69] to obtain her from Jean de Luxembourg, a member of the Council of Duke Philip of Burgundy.”
WIKIPEDIA
JOAN OF ARC/CAPTURE
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
JOAN OF ARC
[109]
””They have but two rulers, M. de Warwick and another whose name I have forgotten.”
– The Governor of Abbeville in a letter to Louis XI[2][58]
AAN DE RECHTERKANT VAN
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/WARWICK’S APEX
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
[110]
”Meanwhile, Edward’s father-in-law, Richard Woodville, Earl Rivers, who had been created treasurer, was in favour of a Burgundian alliance.[80] This set up internal conflict within the English court, which was not alleviated by the fact that Edward had signed a secret treaty in October with Burgundy, while Warwick was forced to carry on sham negotiations with the French”
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/EARLY TENSIONS’
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
WIKIPEDIA
MARGARET OF YORK/MARRIAGE
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
MARGARET OF YORK
[111]
Meanwhile, Edward’s father-in-law, Richard Woodville, Earl Rivers, who had been created treasurer, was in favour of a Burgundian alliance
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/EARLY TENSIONS’
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
[112]
WIKIPEDIA
HUNDRED YEARS WAR/BEGINNING OF THE WAR: 1337-1360
ORIGINELE BERICHT
WIKIPEDIA
HUNDRED YEARS WAR
[113]
”Later, George Neville was dismissed as chancellor, while Edward refused to contemplate a marriage between Warwick’s oldest daughter Isabel, and Edward’s brother George, Duke of Clarence.[82] It became increasingly clear that Warwick’s position of dominance at court had been taken over by Rivers
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE. 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/EARLY TENSIONS
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE. 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
[114]
WARWICK ALS HOOFD VAN DE NEVILLE FAMILIE
Most of England’s leading families had remained loyal to Henry VI or remained uncommitted in the recent conflict. The new regime, therefore, relied heavily on the support of the Nevilles, who held vast estates and had been so instrumental in bringing Edward to the throne. However, the king increasingly became estranged from their leader the Earl of Warwick, due primarily to his marriage
WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD IV OF ENGLAND/OVERTHROW
Edward’s impetuous marriage to Elizabeth Woodville greatly offended the Nevilles, largely because Warwick had been negotiating several continental alliances to support Edward’s tenuous reign, including a marriage to one of several family members of Louis XI of France.
WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD IV OF ENGLAND
ORIGINELE BRON
[115]
Warwick now orchestrated a rebellion in Yorkshire while he was away, led by a “Robin of Redesdale“.[87] Part of Warwick’s plan was winning over King Edward’s younger brother, George Plantagenet, possibly with the prospect of installing him on the throne
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/REBELLION AND DEATH
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
[116]
WIKIPEDIA
HOUSE OF NEVILLE/DISAFFECTION AND DEFECTION

Disaffection and defection

Warwick, now the richest man in England after the king, was the power behind the throne in Edward’s regime during its early years, but the two men later fell out.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Neville#Disaffection_and_defection

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIA

HOUSE OF NEVILLE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Neville

[117]

The king opposed the marriage as it would bring the already powerful Earl of Warwick too close to the throne. However the ceremony took place in secret at Calais on 11 July 1469, conducted by Isabel Neville’s uncle George Neville, archbishop of York.

WIKIPEDIA

ISABEL NEVILLE, DUCHESS OF CLARENCE/LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabel_Neville,_Duchess_of_Clarence#Life

ORIGINELE BRON

WIKIPEDIA

ISABEL NEVILLE, DUCHESS OF CLARENCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabel_Neville,_Duchess_of_Clarence

”Warwick retired in dudgeon to his estates, and began to plot in secret for his revenge. In the summer of 1469 he went over to Calais, where Isabel and Clarence were married without the king’s knowledge. ”

LUMINARIUM

RICHARD NEVILLE, EARL OF WARWICK

”THE KINGMAKER”

(1428-1471)

http://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/warwick.htm

[118]
Robin of Redesdale (fl. 1469), sometimes called “Robin Mend-All”, was the leader of an insurrection against King Edward IV of England.[1] His true identity is unknown, but it is thought he could have been either Sir John Conyers of Hornby (d. 1490) or his brother Sir William Conyers of Marske (d. 1469), or even both. Whoever he was, the power behind his rebellion was Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick (“Warwick the Kingmaker”).”
WIKIPEDIA
ROBIN OF REDESDALE
”Warwick now orchestrated a rebellion in Yorkshire while he was away, led by a “Robin of Redesdale“.[87] Part of Warwick’s plan was winning over King Edward’s younger brother, George Plantagenet, possibly with the prospect of installing him on the throne”
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/REBELLION AND DEATH
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
[119]
WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF EDGECOTE
[120]
”Following the battle, Richard Woodville, Earl Rivers, father of the Yorkist Queen Elizabeth Woodville, and his second son John were taken prisoners at Chepstow. Following a hasty show trial, they were beheaded at Kenilworth on 12 August 1469”
WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF EDGECOTE/THE REBELLION
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF EDGECOTE
[121]
With his army now defeated, King Edward IV was taken under arrest by George Neville.[95] Warwick then imprisoned the king in Warwick Castle, and in August, the king was taken north to Middleham Castle.[96] In the long run, however, it proved impossible to rule without the king, and continuing disorder forced Warwick to release King Edward IV in September 1469
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/REBELLION AND DEATH
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
[122]
At this point, Edward did not seek to destroy either Warwick or Clarence but sought reconciliation instead
WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD IV OF ENGLAND/OVERTHROW
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD IV OF ENGLAND
”A modus vivendi had been achieved between Warwick and the king for some months, but the restoration of Henry Percy to Montagu’s earldom of Northumberland prevented any chance of full reconciliation.[97] A trap was set for the king when disturbances in Lincolnshire led him north, where he could be confronted by Warwick’s men.[98] Edward, however, discovered the plot when Robert, Lord Welles, was routed at Losecote Field in Rutland, and gave away the plan
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/REBELLION AND DEATH
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
[123]
”A few months later in March 1470, Warwick and Clarence chose this opportunity to rebel against Edward IV again”
WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD IV OF ENGLAND/OVERTHROW
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD IV OF ENGLAND
”This time, Edward IV was forced to flee to Flanders when he learned that Warwick’s brother John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu, had also switched to the Lancastrian side, making Edward’s military position untenable.[
 
 
WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD IV OF ENGLAND/OVERTHROW
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD IV OF ENGLAND
”Despite this matrimonial relationship with the Nevilles, when Warwick drove Edward IV into exile in 1470, Hastings went with Edward and accompanied the king back the following spring
WIKIPEDIA
WILLIAM HASTINGS, 1ST BARON HASTINGS/BIOGRAPHY
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
WILLIAM HASTINGS, 1ST BARON HASTINGS
”During the latter part of Edward IV’s reign, Richard demonstrated his loyalty to the king,[49] in contrast to their brother George who had allied himself with Warwick when the earl rebelled towards the end of the 1460s.[50] Following Warwick’s 1470 rebellion, before which he had made peace with Margaret of Anjou and promised the restoration of Henry VI to the English throne, Richard, William, Lord Hastings and Anthony Woodville, Earl Rivers escaped capture at Doncaster by Warwick’s brother, Lord Montague.[51] On 2 October they sailed from King’s Lynn in two ships; Edward landed at Marsdiep and Richard at Zeeland.[52] It was said that, having left England in such haste as to possess almost nothing, Edward was forced to pay their passage with his fur cloak; certainly, Richard borrowed three pounds from Zeeland’s town bailiff.
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD III OF ENGLAND/EXILE AND RETURN
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD III OF ENGLAND
”Henry VI was briefly restored to the throne in 1470 in an event known as the Readeption of Henry VI, and Edward took refuge in Flanders, part of Burgundy, accompanied by his younger brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester (later King Richard III of England). The Duke of Burgundy had been Edward’s brother-in-law since the marriage of Edward’s sister Margaret of York to Charles, Duke of Burgundy, on 3 July 1468”
WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD IV OF ENGLAND/RESTORATION
ORIGINELE BRON
[124]
”Henry VI was briefly restored to the throne in 1470 in an event known as the Readeption of Henry VI, and Edward took refuge in Flanders, part of Burgundy, accompanied by his younger brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester (later King Richard III of England). The Duke of Burgundy had been Edward’s brother-in-law since the marriage of Edward’s sister Margaret of York to Charles, Duke of Burgundy, on 3 July 1468”
WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD IV OF ENGLAND/RESTORATION
ORIGINELE BRON
[125]
”Warwick soon gave up, and once more fled the country with Clarence. Denied access to Calais, they sought refuge with King Louis XI of France.[100] Louis arranged a reconciliation between Warwick and Margaret of Anjou, and as part of the agreement, Margaret and Henry’s son, Edward, Prince of Wales, would marry Warwick’s daughter Anne
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/REBELLION AND DEATH
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
”Warwick made an accord with Louis XI and Queen Margaret in which he agreed to restore Henry VI in return for French support for a military invasion of England”
WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD IV OF ENGLAND/OVERTHROW
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD IV OF ENGLAND
[126]
”On 30 December, at the Battle of WakefieldYork was killed, as were York’s second son Edmund, Earl of Rutland, and Warwick’s younger brother Thomas
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/HOUSE OF YORK TRIUMPHANT
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
[127]
Warwick soon gave up, and once more fled the country with Clarence. Denied access to Calais, they sought refuge with King Louis XI of France.[100] Louis arranged a reconciliation between Warwick and Margaret of Anjou, and as part of the agreement, Margaret and Henry’s son, Edward, Prince of Wales, would marry Warwick’s daughter Anne
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK/REBELLION AND DEATH
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD NEVILLE, 16TH EARL OF WARWICK
[128]
WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF BARNET
[129]
”Henry VI rewarded Clarence by making him next in line to the throne after his own son, justifying the exclusion of Edward IV either by attainder for his treason against Henry VI or on the grounds of his alleged illegitimacy.[citation needed] After a short time, Clarence realized that his loyalty to his father-in-law was misplaced: Warwick had his younger daughter, Anne Neville, Clarence’s sister-in-law, marry Henry VI’s son in December 1470. This demonstrated that his father-in-law was less interested in making him king than in serving his own interests and, since it now seemed unlikely that Warwick would replace Edward IV with Clarence, Clarence was secretly reconciled with Edward ”
WIKIPEDIA
GEORGE PLANTAGENET, 1ST DUKE OF CLARENCE/LIFE
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
GEORGE PLANTAGENET, 1ST DUKE OF CLARENCE
[130]
BRITAIN’S BLOODY CROWN
THE KINGMAKER MUST DIE/EP 2 OF 4 (WARS OF THE ROSES DOCUMENTARY
[131]
”Most of England’s leading families had remained loyal to Henry VI or remained uncommitted in the recent conflict. The new regime, therefore, relied heavily on the support of the Nevilles, who held vast estates and had been so instrumental in bringing Edward to the throne.”
WIKIPEDIA
EDWARD IV OF ENGLAND/OVERTHROW
ORIGINELE BRON
[132]
”Henry was by now fully determined to take the throne, but presenting a rationale for this action proved a dilemma.[2] It was argued that Richard, through his tyranny and misgovernment, had rendered himself unworthy of being king.[98] However, Henry was not next in line to the throne; the heir presumptive was Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, great-grandson of Edward III’s second surviving son, Lionel. Bolingbroke’s father, John of Gaunt, was Edward’s third son to survive to adulthood”
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD II OF ENGLAND/DOWNFALL
ORIGINELE BRON
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD II OF ENGLAND
ZIE VOOR HET SUPERIEURE RECHT VAN HET HUIS YORK OP DE TROON, OOK DE NOTEN 24 EN 25
[133]
WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF TEWKESBURY

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